In the beginning about 4.6 billion years ago, the solar system was formed when a cloud of dust and gas in space was disturbed. It might be by the explosion of a nearby star. This explosion created waves in space which caused squeeze the cloud of gas and dust. Because of the process of squeezing and reduction of temperature made the cloud start to collapse, as gravity pulled the gas and dust together. Eventually, the cloud grew hotter and denser in the center, with a disk of gas and dust surrounding it that was hot in the center but cool at the edges. As the disk got thinner and thinner, particles began to stick together and formed a group. Some groups got bigger, as particles and small groups stuck to them, eventually formed planets or moons. Near the center of the cloud, where planets like earth formed, the only rocky material could stand the great heat. Icy matter settled in the outer regions of the circumstellar disk along with rocky material, where the giant planets like Jupiter formed. As the cloud continued to fall in, the center eventually got so hot that it became a star, the Sun, and blew most of the gas and dust of the new solar system with a strong stellar wind.
Because of the extreme heat, the newborn star lit up and it started to send light and heat out into the spinning circumstellar disk. Soon that material becomes consolidated with gas planets, ice giants, and rocky worlds, creating the present solar system we know. For years, asteroids were thought of as remnants of planet formation. They are chumps of material and are not enough to be created a planet because of its size. But they circle the Sun staying between Mars and Jupiter.
“These all asteroids are the chunks of worlds which were created when the worlds were exploded or destroyed.” According to a study was published on Monday journal Nature Astronomy.
According to scientists “Greater number of the half million bodies in the inner belt of the asteroid may be fragments from parent bodies which is called planetesimals.” For more than 4 billion years there were a lot of fragments produced due to the collision of the worlds and collision of fragments in a cataclysmic cascade, because of this the tangled orbits of those lost worlds were created.
Katherine Kretke, a planetary scientist at the Southwest Research Institute said that the discovery doesn’t only enlighten a mystery of the asteroid belt but also help to figure out a controversy about the creation of eight planets including earth. She thinks we must look back in time to know the story about the formation of the solar system and to know how the asteroid belt was made by these big planetesimals and to know about how our planets were formed etc.
In the hopes of resolving the reasons why the belt was left by an object and potentially fly toward earth, the study’s lead author, University of Florida astronomer Stanley Dermott and his team looking at data on the dynamics of bodies in the inner asteroid belt. But he has yet to reach in conclusion in figuring out how and why asteroid collision was made because he is still studying about asteroid collisions. In looking through a database of near-earth objects, he observed something unusual about many big asteroids. The orbits of such asteroids were inclined or tilted, relative to the level of the rest of the solar system. According to Dermott, it is impossible to think of any forces that are able to create that position. On the other hand, yes it is possible that if a large asteroid is broken in pieces and it has a high inclination, then those pieces have that same inclination.
According to the analysis of Dermott and his team, 85% of inner-belt of asteroids belong to five families whereas other scientists analyzed roughly only half of inner-belt asteroids belong to five families.
According to David Nesvorny, a planetary scientist at SWRI who was not involved with Dermott’s study, this finding matches other observations of the asteroid belt these are asteroids thought to belong to the same family tend to orbit in clusters and have similar chemical compositions.
According to Nesvorny asteroids are born big in the beginning but after the explosion or collision, it detached into fragments. This discovery may help to figure out the question about the formation of the planet that has frustrated scientists for years.
According to the traditional story of the rise of the solar system, the planets created slowly from accumulation particles in the circumstellar disk assembled together to great pebbles, then slightly bigger spheres, continuously until they got their current size. But later on, when scientists tried to re-create this story with computer models, it showed different opinions.
According to such different opinion, in the beginning, planets were big, rather than growing they were broken down into splinter until reaching pebble size.
According to Nesvorny and many others thoughts, the gravity once broke down the big planets into pebble size in the circumstellar disk, then again speedily pulled together large amounts of material to create a big new planet. It resulted in small and rocky planets such as Earth was formed in the inner solar system far from the Sun which is made up of the gas. But because of the terrific gravity of largest planets such as Mars and Jupiter in the solar system, it is difficult to grow another large object between them, Nesvorny said.
The smaller bodies which were probably the one-tenth size of an Earthlike planet emerged and they couldn’t exist or survive without collision, as a result, they broke apart and formed the present asteroid belt. Tim McCoy, a geologist at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History drawn attention towards the meteorites that fall to Earth from the Sky do not look like they are the pieces of large parent bodies, these are the vital questions about this theory according to an above-named geologist.
According to Kretke’s advice, the above theory is possible only if there were a few dozen parent bodies, not only just five.
In the meantime, Nesvorny mentioned that the inner belt is as the home of one-tenth of all asteroids. And he would hope to see the analysis regarding the rest of the asteroid belt. Dermott said he and his team plan to resolve the above question. And he further said that the research may be applied to other solar systems in future because astronomers have already found the proof for asteroid belts around Vega and Fomalhaut stars just a couple dozen light-years away.
Also, he gave assurance saying, “This will be the next big step and it is going to happen in our lifetimes.” These are the whole business of formation and evolution of planets and question is that “What do we need to do to form an Earthlike planet elsewhere?” and Is something we can eventually discuss in meaningful conditions.